Polyp (polyp, polypus) – an abnormal growth of tissue, benign tumor, which has epithelial origin, serving on the mucosal surface, tissue.
Polyp may occur in any organ of the floor, where there mucosa: nasal cavity, pharynx, bronchi, the entire gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus, gall bladder, bladder, cervix and cervical canal. Polyps can be in any sex organ, but most often develop in different parts of the digestive tract and are among the common diseases of this system. Often they can be found in patients with allergic rhinitis, in which they may be formed in response to prolonged antigenic stimulation.
First place in the frequency of localization of polyps is the stomach, then the rectum and colon. Polyps are most often appear in one place, but can be simultaneously in two or more organs of the body. So far no generally accepted theory of etiology of the disease. Lack of reliable clinical criteria is an embarrassment to practicing physicians in the diagnosis and the differential diagnosis.
Polyps may be solitary and multiple. Multiple polyps called polyposis (or papillomatosis). An example is the family diffuse polyposis of the colon, bladder papillomatosis.
According to their structure polyps are papillary and tubular, depending on the prevailing morphological features. Both morphological element – papillae and tubes – are characteristic of normal epithelial glands. Therefore, polyps are often called adenomas or adenomatous polyps.
There is another version of polyps, distinct from adenomatosis. This gamartomnye polyps developing in the lean and ileum (eg, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome).
Third option polyps – hyperplastic. This option is not true polyposis, and is due to hyperplasia of epithelial cells. When hyperplasia increases the amount of each individual cell. Moreover, their number remains unchanged.
Relevance of polyps is their ability to malignant, that is converted into adenocarcinoma.
The degree of malignancy of polyps, different localization, varies widely.
Thus, while malignancy solitary polyps of the colon ranges from 2 to 7%, degeneration in the case of family polyposis is 95%, while pollipoze intestine – 100%.
The causes of polyps are different, but most polyps occur in chronic gastric inflammation. The appearance of polyps, says that in the body there are serious problems. For example, running gastritis, gynecological disease, colitis, and various kidney diseases and many others.
Treatment of polyps
Therapeutic tactics, choice of method and extent of surgery depends on the location, distribution and morphological structure of the polyps. The choice of therapeutic measures based on the application as a conservative methods, or sparing minimally invasive interventions (polypectomy), and radical surgery on the resection of the body to its complete removal. It is now widely used various methods of diagnosis and treatment of polyps using endoscopic technology, which allows to view almost any hollow organ of the body, clarify the localization and propagation of the process, make photo and video, biopsy and therapeutic manipulation.
As there is no way of knowing if a polyp will become malignant, total removal of the polyp is the best treatment. If polyps are detected during a colonoscopy, they can usually be removed painlessly using the colonoscope. A wire loop is placed around the polyp and then a electrical current is passed through the wire, to separate the polyp from the bowel. If the polyp is very large it may require more than one treatment for complete removal. If the polyp cannot be removed with these methods then surgery may be required.
Most polyps are removed, and then carry out a histological study of remote polyp. Modern endoscopic technique allows it to implement quickly and painlessly, on an outpatient basis.
Large polyps and polyp stems that are very broad usually need to be removed in an Surgery Room using local, regional or general anesthesia applying such surgical methods as electroscission, cryodestruction (cold),or laser vaporization.